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Reflexive pronouns reiterate the subject, which may seem redundant, but in fact serves an important purpose: it indicates that the subject of the verb is performing that action on itself. In contrast, direct and indirect object pronouns indicate that the subject is performing the action on someone or something else.
|Je me lève à 8h.||I get [myself] up at 8am.|
|Nous nous connaissons.||We know each other.|
Characteristics of reflexive pronouns
- Are required with pronominal verbs
- Are only used with pronominal verbs
- Must agree with the subject
- May be direct or indirect objects
French reflexive pronouns
|me||(m’, moi)||me, myself||nous||us, ourselves|
|te||(t’, toi)||you, yourself||vous||you, yourself, yourselves|
|se||(s’)||him(self), her(self), it(self)||se (s’)||them, themselves|
+ The first and second person singular pronouns have three forms each:
- Normal forms: me and te
- Contracted forms: m’ and t’, for use in front of a vowel or h muet
- Stressed forms: moi and toi, for use in a particular imperative construction
+ The third person singular and plural pronoun has two forms:
- Normal form: se
- Contracted form: s’, for use in front of a vowel or h muet
+ The first and second person plural direct object pronouns have just one form each.
In regard to reflexive pronouns, there’s no distinction between "himself," "herself," "itself," and "themselves" in French: use se for all of them.
Reflexive pronouns are used only with pronominal verbs. Grammatically, they may be direct objects or indirect objects, depending on the verb and the sentence structure they are used in.
Reflexive pronouns vs Object pronouns
|Ils se voient.||They see each other.||reflexive pronoun|
|Ils le voient.||They see it.||direct object pronoun|
|Elles se parlent.||They’re talking to each other.||reflexive pronoun|
|Elles leur parlent.||They’re talking to them.||indirect object pronoun|
Like object pronouns, reflexive pronouns directly precede the verb.
|Je me lève tôt.||I get up early.|
|Vous vous voyez.||You see each other.|
|Nous nous sommes endormis.||We fell asleep.|
Reflexive pronouns always have to agree with their subjects, with every tense, mood, and verb form.
|Future||Je me lèverai tôt.||I will get up early.|
|Infinitive||Vous allez vous voir.||You’re going to see each other.|
|Present participle||En nous endormons, nous…||While falling asleep, we…|
When an impersonal subject is followed by a clause with a pronominal verb in the infinitive, you have your choice of reflexive pronouns, depending on what you want to say.
|Il est difficile de se lever à 6 heures.||It is difficult (for people in general) to get up at 6 am.|
|Il est difficile de me lever à 6 heures.||It is difficult (for me) to get up at 6 am.|
|Il est difficile de nous lever à 6 heures.||It is difficult (for us) to get up at 6 am.|
- Pronominal verbs
- Subject pronouns
- Direct objects
- Indirect objects
- Placement of reflexive pronouns
- Personal pronouns
- Word order with double pronouns
- Te vs vous
- Reflexive Pronouns and Agreement (Worksheet, 8th-9th grade)
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